Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each… If we didn’t have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:

  • Do you like the president? I don’t like the president. The president is too pompous.

With pronouns, we can say:

  • Do you like the president? I don’t like him. He is too pompous.

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An adjective is a word that describes, identifies, modifies, or quantifies something (a noun or a pronoun). In the phrase, “the black cat” the word black is an adjective because it describes the cat.

In English, an adjective usually comes before the noun it pertains to (for example, a red apple or a cute cat.).

Adjectives can be classified into many categories. In English, adjectives are generally used in the order: quantity–>opinion–>size–>age–>shape–>color–>origin–>material–>purpose. Some of these categories are (roughly in the order in which adjectives are used in English):


Definition: Nouns are often preceded by the words “the”, “a”, or “an”. These words are called “determiners”. They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner “the” is known as the “definite article”. It is used before both singular and plural nouns. The determiner “a” (or “an”, when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the “indefinite article”. It is used when the noun is singular. Determiners are used in front of nouns to indicate whether you are referring to something specific or something of a particular type.
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Reading Comprehension Skills – Scanning

Scanning is used to discover required information to complete a given task such as making a decision about what to watch on TV, or which museum to visit while visiting a foreign city. Ask students NOT to read the excerpt before they begin the exercise, but rather, to focus on completing the task based on what the question requires. It is probably a good idea to do some awareness raising of the various types of reading skills that they use naturally in their own mother tongue (i.e. extensive, intensive, skimming, scanning) before beginning this exercise.
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